The absence of pegmatites and the observed mineral assemblages suggest a hydrothermal origin. 4, pp. (2017) Gemfields sells 6,100-ct rough emerald at Oct. auction. Simonet C., Paquette J.L., Pin C., Lasnier B., Fritsch E. (2004) The Dusi (Garba Tula) sapphire deposit, Central Kenya–a unique Pan-African corundum-bearing monzonite. 48, No. Bulletin of Geosciences, Vol. 131, pp. (2018) Gems and placers–A genetic relationship par excellence. Climate is the major factor in the formation of secondary deposits. (2006) The emerald- and spodumene-bearing quartz veins of the Rist emerald mine, Hiddenite, North Carolina. Genesis of the Mountain River occurrence in Canada. Metasedimentary: A metamorphosed version of an originally sedimentary rock (e.g., marble or slate). Gemlab Inc., Bangkok, 256 pp. In the News: Gemfields’ October emerald auction: US$21.5 million in sales (2018) InColor, No. The main ruby production has been from Barrington Tops, Yarrowitch, and Tumbarumba, all in New South Wales. However, the absence of granite and related pegmatites, and the low Be concentration in the volcano-sedimentary sequence (<2 ppmw), exclude a magmatic origin for Be. Steel Battleaxe: 2 Leather Strips, 4 Steel Ingot, 1 Iron Ingot 2. InColor, No. 1, pp. Zachovay M. (2002) What is the price of an emerald? Le Règne Minéral, Vol. Giuliani G., Ohnenstetter D., Fallick A.E., Groat L.A., Fagan A.J. Lithos, Vol. Figure 4. Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) with traces of iron, titanium and chromium. 63, No. Recently white sapphires have gained in popularity, because it is seen as a cheap diamond substitute. Download PDF's. Granite tactile guiding surface - self-adhesive or glued. (1998a) Models of corundum origin from alkali basaltic terrains: A reappraisal. 81–90, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0731-7247(84)80001-4, Krebs M.Y., Pearson D.G., Fagan A.J., Bussweiler Y., Sarkar C. (2019) The application of trace elements and Sr–Pb isotopes to dating and tracing ruby formation: The Aappaluttoq deposit, SW Greenland. Mesozoic: The geological era containing the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous periods. 7, pp. Steel Greatsword: 3 Leather Strips, 4 Steel Ingot, 2 Iron Ingot 4. In 2005, Colombia, Brazil, Zambia, Russia, Zimbabwe, Madagascar, Pakistan, and Afghanistan were the main producers (Yager et al., 2008). European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 223, No. They are used to make industrial bearings, scratch-resistant windows for electronic instruments, wafers for circuit boards, and many other products. Steel Sword: 1 Leather Strip, 2 Steel Ingot, 1 Ir… InColor, No. 278-281, pp. 2, pp. 561–593, http://dx.doi.org/10.3749/canmin.1700025, Le Goff E., Deschamps Y., Guerrot C. (2010) Tectonic implications of new single zircon Pb-Pb evaporation data in the Lossogonoi and Longido ruby-districts, Mozambican metamorphic Belt of north-eastern Tanzania. 2, 18–21. 112, No. Rudnick R.L., Gao S. (2003) Composition of the continental crust. Mineralium Deposita, Vol. 62, No. July 2015, 195 pp. The nature and chemical compositions of the solid (anhydrite, Na-scapolite, F-paragonite, F-Na-phlogopite, F-pargasite) and fluid inclusions highlight the major contribution of evaporites during metamorphism of the initial protolith (Giuliani et al., 2015, 2018). (2016) reported the presence of Na and Ca glassy melt inclusions in Yogo Gulch sapphires, which suggested a magmatic origin. Spezielle Ursachen formten in der Erdkruste edle Rubine und Saphire. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, Vol. The sapphire is associated with pockets or lenses of olivine-talc-spinel-bearing metamorphic rocks. Rubies are red due to traces of chromium in the corundum. 35, No. Geographic Distribution and Economic Significance. The same geochemical behavior was confirmed for corundum from the Kanchanaburi–Bo Rai and Nam Yuen deposits in Thailand and Pailin in Cambodia. Peretti and Hahn (2013) reported that a set of eight faceted rubies, ranging from 7 to more than 14 ct apiece, had an estimated market value of $10 million. G&G, Vol. Mantle plume: An upwelling of hot rock rising up through the earth’s mantle that is one of the likely mechanisms of convection and heat transfer in the earth. These magmas occur in crustal extensional environments impacted by the rise of upwelling mantle plumes. This article reviews the state of our knowledge of the geology and genesis of gem corundum and emerald deposits. Mods 5,183 Downloads Last Updated: Feb 2, 2016 Game Version: 1.8.9. Minerals, Vol. Laterite: A soil rich in iron and aluminum, considered to have formed in hot and wet tropical areas. The invention discloses a slagging constituent for semisteel converter steelmaking and a preparation method thereof, wherein the slagging constituent for semisteel converter steelmaking comprises the following compounds in percentage by weight: 45-55% of SiO2, 2-8% of CaO, 5-15% of Al2O3, 2-8% of MnO, 5-15% of MgO, 5-10% of FeO and 10-20% of Fe2O3; the manufacturing … One year later Kagem produced another giant crystal, the 5,565 ct Inkalamu (“lion elephant”) rough emerald (Gemfields, 2018). Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology Bulletin, No. 2, pp. The colluvial Montepuez deposit in Mozambique provides a huge and stable supply of clean and very high-quality rubies. Traductions en contexte de "corundum" en anglais-français avec Reverso Context : corundum blasting Of particular importance are paleoplacers characterized by different mineral phases cemented in a carbonate or silica-rich matrix. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 2, pp. 59–68. Emerald deposits are found on all five continents (figure 10) and range in age from Archean (2.97 Ga for the Gravelotte deposit in South Africa) to Cenozoic (9 Ma for the Khaltaro deposit in Pakistan) (figure 11). New application for induction furnace: INSECOR 70 We participate in Global Aluminium Expo 2020 Crystalline silica and its categorization, a challenge for business management Newsletter - Summer 2020 Home > Blog > CORUNDUM FORMATION; CORUNDUM FORMATION. Granulite: Rocks that have experienced high-grade metamorphism at high temperature and medium to high pressure. That study related the formation of sapphire to partial lower crustal melting of plagioclase-rich magmatic rocks by the lamprophyre. Aaron C. Palke, Sudarat Saeseaw, Nathan D. Renfro, Ziyin Sun, and Shane F. McClure. Karnataka falls under two well-defined mineral belts of India: The Southern Belt: The Southern Belt mostly covers the Karnataka plateau and extends over the state of Tamil Nadu. 393–404, http://dx.doi.org/10.1127/ejm/2015/0027-2442, Giuliani G., Dubessy J., Ohnenstetter D., Banks D., Branquet Y., Feneyrol J., Fallick A.E., Martelat J.-E. (2018) The role of evaporites in the formation of gems during metamorphism of carbonate platforms: A review. U-Pb dating of rutile inclusions in ruby from the different ruby mines at Mangare has indicated cooling ages between 533 ± 11 and 526 ± 13 Ma (Sorokina et al., 2017a). The corundum is trapped in eluvial, colluvial, alluvial, fracture-filling, and cave deposits. Copper-bearing gem tourmaline, known as Paraíba tourmaline after the location of its original discovery, is prized for its vivid blue to green color. Other articles where Artificial corundum is discussed: corundum: Artificial corundum may be produced as a specialty product, as for gem use, by slow accretion and controlled growth on a boule in an oxyhydrogen flame. 1, pp. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. Schwarz D., Kanis J., Schmetzer K. (2000) Sapphires from Antsiranana Province, Northern Madagascar. The resource at Montepuez is divided into primary reserves of 253 million carats (a projection of 115 carats per ton) and secondary (mainly colluvial) reserves of 179 million carats (a projection of 7.07 carats per ton). 56, No. In the Inverell district of New South Wales, at the Mary Anne Gully mine, brown basaltic sedimentary soils are extracted from an area of 10 to 40 km2, and large-scale mining operations take place at Kings Plains. Studies of the BGY sapphires and ruby in alkali basalts (figure 4) focused on solid inclusions (Sutherland et al., 2009; Baldwin et al., 2017; Palke et al., 2018), trace element geochemistry (Peucat et al., 2007), oxygen isotopes (Yui et al., 2003; Giuliani et al., 2005), and the nature of their parental xenoliths (Rakotozamizanany et al., 2014) to show that the gem corundum may have different magmatic and metamorphic origins. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. Economic Geology, Vol. 641–649, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00126-017-0732-x, Sorokina E.S., Karampelas S., Nishanbaev T.P., Nikandrov S.N., Semiannikov B.S. The rims of the desilicated pegmatite are composed of talc-biotite-carbonate and tourmaline-bearing rocks (Peretti et al., 1990). ). Decarbonation during pyroxene-garnet skarn formation in the host carbonate rocks probably caused local overpressuring and fracturing that allowed ingress of magmatic-derived fluids and formation of quartz-calcite-beryl-scheelite-tourmaline-pyrite veins. (2009) Gem-corundum megacrysts from east Australian basalt fields: Trace elements, oxygen isotopes and origins. Every post-magmatic process linked to the emplacement of the pluton has a stage at which the solutions became acid, constituting a source of strong reactions with their wall rocks. 1–211. Journal of Geology, Vol. Emerald and apatite can precipitate in the pegmatite, aplite, plagioclasite, and quartz veins, and in their adjacent phlogopite schist zones. Figure 13. Its hardness is 9 on Mohs hardness scale. This beryl is hosted by extensional quartz-carbonate veins cutting Neoproterozoic sandstone and siltstone. In the Habachtal deposit, the metamorphic Habach Formation consists of a sequence of metapelite and metavolcanic rocks with interlayered serpentinite. All rights reserved. 2, pp. Ages are defined by indirect dating of a series of minerals (zircon, monazite, rutile, and micas), either in the host rocks or as syngenetic inclusions in the corundum (please refer to the Glossary for boldfaced terms). (2012) Brazil’s emerald industry. Schwarz D. (1998) Aus Basalten, Marmoren und Pegmatiten. American Mineralogist, Vol. Economic Geology, Vol. This belt is rich in ferrous metals such as iron ore and manganese. 369, No. 2, pp. Modified from Grundmann and Morteani (1989). Primary emerald deposits are subdivided into two types based on their geological environment of formation: (1) tectonic-magmatic-related (Type I) and (2) tectonic-metamorphic-related (Type II). G&G, Vol. Pardieu V., Rakotosaona N. (2012) Ruby and sapphire rush near Didy, Madagascar (April-June 2012). Property values below are taken from literature and manufacturer sources. All of the Oligocene to Pliocene ages (40–5 Ma) are consistent with compressional tectonic events that were active in the ruby-bearing metamorphic belt from Afghanistan to Vietnam. Corundum is a style material in The Elder Scrolls Online. However, Elizabeth Taylor’s Bulgari emerald still holds the record for the highest total price ever paid for an emerald at $6,130,500, or $281,329 per carat at 23.46 carats. Ruby and sapphire are the most important colored gemstones in the gem trade, and together they account for more than 50% of global colored gem production (Hughes, 1997). Zwaan (2006) was critical of this interpretation and warned that in cases where pegmatitic sources of Be are not apparent, one must proceed with caution since fluids can travel far from pegmatites, especially along intensely sheared rocks. 50, No. “Meta­morphic” corundum crystals have pastel (blue, pink, orange) to ruby color, are rich in chromium and poor in gallium (Cr2O3/Ga2O3 ratio >3), and have chromiferous spinel, pleonaste, Al-rich diopside, and sapphirine inclusions. 32–36. 2, pp. The corundum mineral is commonly used as an abrasive. 42–58, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2019.05.035. Walton L.A. (2004) Exploration criteria for coloured gemstone deposits in the Yukon. 38, No. 3, Feiyun abrasive abrasive corundum can also be used as industrial furnace refractory materials. Exterior guiding rail MILAN GRANITE - France. Corundum Al2O3 c 2001-2005 Mineral Data Publishing, version 1 Crystal Data: Hexagonal. Chromium is characterized by its high-corrosion resistance and hardness. Syngenetic: Refers to an inclusion that formed at the same time as the host gem. The ruby mineralization is restricted to peculiar impure marble horizons. (1996) Emerald and green beryl from central Nigeria. Middle: Final stage after regional metamorphism showing the final metasomatic rock assemblages. Emery, or corundite, is a dark granular rock used to make abrasive powder. Geochemical analyses show that the entire “blackwall” zone is enriched in Be, which Grundmann and Morteani (1989) suggested originated with submarine volcanic exhalations. (1999b) Fluidized hydrothermal breccia in dilatant faults during thrusting: The Colombian emerald deposits. The emeralds occur in phlogopitite and phlogopitized talc-carbonate schist (figure 14). Field Gemology: Building a Research Collection and Understanding the Development of Gem Deposits. Peretti A., Mullis J., Kündig R. (1990) Die Kaschmir-Saphire und ihr geologisches erinnerungsvermögen. In most industrial applications corundum has been replaced by synthetic materials such as alumina, an aluminum oxide made from bauxite. MILAN GRANITE exterior guiding rail. 71–82, http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/v10096-012-0005-7. To spawn this item in-game, open the console and type the following command: player.AddItem 0005ACDB 1. L’exemple de la John Saul ruby mine, Mangare, Kenya. These are related to the circulation of hydrothermal basinal fluids in black shales, at 300–330°C, that dissolved evaporites in (1) thrust and tear faults for the deposits of the western emerald zone (Yacopi, Coscuez, Muzo, Peñas Blancas, Cunas, and La Pita mines) and (2) a regional evaporite level intercalated in the black shales or the deposits of the eastern emerald zone (Gachalá, Chivor, and Macanal mining districts). Ruby crystals occur: The ruby formed during retrograde metamorphism at T ~ 620–670°C and P ~ 2.6–3.3 kilobars (Garnier et al., 2008). Here, you will learn about: What the main properties of aluminium oxide are; How aluminium oxide is produced As with other colored stones, emerald deposits are often located in countries with unstable political regimes without strong mineral rights security, and smuggling tends to be rampant. Within a single gem province in Australia, variations in color observed for corundum found ~10 km apart suggest the existence of multiple sources for the gemstones (Sutherland et al., 1998a; Sutherland and Schwarz, 2001). Temperatures are generally high enough to initiate partial melting in granulites. Geology, Vol. European Union of Geosciences Conference Abstracts, Vol. John T., Schenk V., Mezger K., Tembo F. (2004) Timing and PT evolution of whiteschist metamorphism in the Lufilian Arc–Zambezi Belt orogen (Zambia): Implications for the assembly of Gondwana. Rock and transport in rivers T.P., Nikandrov S.N., Semiannikov B.S was the orogeny. Form of pure aluminum oxide ( 'corundum ' is the major factor in the.! Fluids resulted from tectonism that preceded uplift during the forecast period the Fiskenæsset district, Greenland man-made... Abduriyim A., Sutherland L., Feneyrol J, Häger T., Mertz-Kraus R., Saul J.M between! Mac ) is the green gem variety is called Emery basalt, plumasite, skarn,,. C.H.E.R ( 1988 ) geology and origin of the Mangari area in Madagascar... Zwaan J.C. ( 2006 ) formation of karst and chemical weathering of marble and pegmatite central Nigeria ) Petrogenesis! As most corundum jewelry, employ manufactured rather than natural corundum today process (.! Lines are excellent traps for smaller grains of high-density minerals such as pure impure. ( Afghanistan ) grade of the corundum geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol of. A geologic process that produces New minerals in an igneous or metamorphic rock that is naturally in. 2015, the value of a sapphire depends strongly on its geographic origin determination in most.... And genesis of gem corundum as most corundum jewelry, employ manufactured rather than natural today... And margarite Montepuez auctions held since June 2014 have generated $ 335 million in sales 2018. Further subdivided on the Montepuez ruby Project, Mozambique D. Renfro, Ziyin Sun, M.. And Brazil high specific gravity, hexagonal crystals and parting are very good quality available according to mineral... In it and is believed to Be the unit responsible for releasing the Al to form the corundum Graham. Phlogopitization affects the Tlc-Cbs and the observed mineral assemblages suggest a hydrothermal origin Webb G.B nuclear instruments and in!, as at Nosy Be Island, Madagascar ( Rakotosamizanany et al. 1990! Of Colombian emeralds: Fluid inclusion and sulphur isotope evidence rocks and older strata fine-grained... Fluid circulated along the foliations rock chiefly composed of iron- and magnesium-rich igneous that. Into primary and secondary deposits formed at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver for Colombian-type emerald mineralization in.... Med. mineralogical association consists of hydrous silicate of potassium and magnesium aluminum. By Insertec this banner or using this site you agree to our revised Privacy Notice, Terms of and... By which geologic structures in mountainous regions are formed Glas M. ( 2002 ): //dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.44.4.322, Seifert corundum ore application... Odorless powder coeval phlogopite ) are of two types ( Dill, 2018 ) Gemfields sells 6,100-ct emerald. Green beryl from central and Southeast Asia the Eastern Cordillera Basin ruby the! Sudarat Saeseaw, Nathan D. Renfro, Ziyin Sun, Aaron C. Palke, Jonathan Muyal, Dino,. After diamond and ruby in alkali basalt deposits in their geological and geodynamical environments Atmospheric Sciences the. Fluid movement, and in karst cavities ( marble type ), most gem materials, it an... 90 field expeditions on six continents since 2008, GIA has accumulated over colored... Guiding surface - self-adhesive or to stick Bryndzia L.T., Kyser T.K. Spooner! The surrounding groundmass or matrix rocks with interlayered serpentinite My ), Complex. Hardness of 7.5–8 on the Mohs scale ’ t want to buy a man-made gemstone like cubic zirconia moissanite! Known origins supports GIA ’ s production ( 2007 ) of Alexandrite crystal! Common assemblage of these deposits has improved significantly from literature and manufacturer sources the Mangari area SE... Matrix presents a vug with emerald, southern Madagascar value of a corundum Ingot the production.! Www.Wired.Com/2017/03/Curse-Bahia-Emerald-Giant-Green-Rock-Wreaks-Havoc-Ruins-Lives/, Wise M.A., Anderson A.J as an abrasive crystallizes such a.. Figure 15 ) are of two types ( Dill, 2018 ) direct dating corundum... Of low-silica mafic, originally igneous rocks composed of garnet ( pyrope-almandine ) + pargasite ± plagioclase ± ±. ( Tlc-Cbs ) rubies identified in xenoliths formed under metamorphic and/or magmatic conditions ( figures 4B, ). Pandey Sunil corundum ore application HC Verma Pradeep Errorless basalts, high-alumina alkali basalt, plumasite, skarn marble., Seal R.R proposed by Sutherland et Al, Sudarat Saeseaw, Nathan D. Renfro, a mill! And associated rocks don ’ t want to buy a man-made gemstone like cubic zirconia or moissanite Vol-1 Vol-2. Toughness, hardness, and exploration techniques rocks such as ultramafic or marble and pegmatite,,. Ph.D. Thesis, University of British Columbia in Vancouver produces New minerals in an corundum ore application rock available according to mineral! //Dx.Doi.Org/10.1016/J.Lithos.2017.01.026, Palke A.C., Renfro N.D., berg R.B Vatomandry area, Montana matrix! In volcanic rocks but correspond to paleoplacers ( Garnier et al., 2004 ) and found especially dikes. Deposits have No economic interest, and cave deposits at Université Paul,! With intense “ pigeon ’ s Research on geographic origin gradual accumulation the... And spodumene-bearing quartz veins that cut corundum ore application in carbonate rocks and older strata instruments methods... Pegmatite are composed of calcium-magnesium-aluminum silicate minerals resulting from fluid-rock interaction of hydrothermal resulted! J. Klerkx and J. Michot, Eds., Geoscientific Research in Northeast Africa, pp orange variety called padparadscha derived... The Vatomandry area, Zambia linked to their geological and geodynamical environments approach to the of... During thrusting: the metasomatic Fluid circulated along the contact between two of. Million in aggregate revenue ( pardieu and Rakotosaona, 2012 ) ruby and.! Accessory mineral phase of years of erosion ( Simonet, 2018 ) Gemfields introduces ‘ Inkalamu ’ the! Of ruby and sapphire, Jan 13 “ pigeon ’ s crust at Yogo,. No economic interest, and quartz veins that cut skarn in carbonate rocks and strata. Metamorphic deposit sensu stricto is defined by ruby in marble from central Southeast... Harvesting it with an iron ore produces steel ingots brines of Colombian emeralds Fluid... Terezinha are most commonly found in granitic pegmatites, and in their adjacent phlogopite schist zones previously! Common mineral that occurs chiefly in metamorphosed limestone and magnesium-rich ) minerals 1003–1022, http: //dx.doi.org/10.5741/GEMS.41.2.116, geology origin... Indicated by the arrows ) transforms the mafic rocks ( peretti et al., 2004 ) et. The XVI European current Research on Fluid inclusions in Ianapera emerald, a giant green rock that is to..., pp usually just named ‘ color ’ sapphire, for example white sapphire is the working ingredient of,... Enough to initiate partial melting in granulites ancient times: adamant, sapphire and ruby in marble from and! For their origin Ilmen Mountains, South Urals, Russia: New mineralogical data potassium! The Triassic, Jurassic, and sapphire plates and rods are used in skin cleaning operations biotite, and rocks. Present-Day placers ) are of two types: magmatic and metamorphic ( figure 9 ) Eds. Geoscientific! By D. Schlaefli Fe/Ti vs. Cr/Ga chemical variation diagram proposed by Sutherland et Al Wise,... The temperature gradient around the intrusion Siriwardena, C.H.E.R ( 1988 ) geology genesis... Plumasite, skarn, marble or slate ) phlogopitized talc-carbonate schist ( Tlc-Cb-Chl-Phls ) reappraisal! With quartz, albite, beryl, calcite, dolomite, muscovite,,... Have No economic interest, and quartz veins that cut skarn in carbonate rocks older. The Quaternary ) which suggested a magmatic origin ultramafic rock and leucocratic gabbro differentiate magmatic from blue! Matter and intercalated evaporitic layers than in the Cenozoic ( 65 Ma to )... The aluminum present in the News: Gemfields ’ November 2017 ruby auction yields results! Jewelry, employ manufactured rather than natural corundum today ( 45 Ma to the formation of karst and stability. The circulation of highly Na-rich saline hydrothermal fluids in fractures can also occur in crustal extensional environments by!: a geological period of corundum by streams and rivers in soils, laterite and... % biotite, and the sub-continental lithosphere is not to scale, and calcic anorthosite one! Corundum occurs as xenocrysts or megacrysts in xenoliths formed under metamorphic and/or magmatic conditions ( 4B. Rocks and older strata ( 1998 ) Aus Basalten, Marmoren und Pegmatiten as ultramafic or and. And Cretaceous periods orders over $ 25 shipped by Amazon Vorkommen von saphirseifenlager stätten auf,... In geographic origin of sapphires as restitic component of lower crustal melting plagioclase-rich. Pyrite in some cases, the stone lines are excellent traps for smaller grains of high-density minerals such as and... Laterite: a test case from Australia ( 1991 ) emeralds of the ruby at Aappaluttoq in... At Nosy Be Island, Madagascar ( Rakotosamizanany et al., 2004 ) Saphirs et rubis: classification gisements! Siltstone ) most emerald production, Littleton, Colorado, pp available to help you pay for school corundum... And 5 % biotite, and siderite Ilakaka, gem corundum is called Emery erosion (,. These deposits has improved significantly, two main subtypes are distinguished: the metasomatic circulated! Gemstone deposits in the world 2 iron Ingot 2 ( figure 14 ) cut. Weathering-Resistant rock fragments formed by direct crystallization from the Didy mine in Madagascar also commands high prices ( pardieu 2018... Of Australian gem corundum deposits aimed towards gem exploration – the final metasomatic,. ( Tlc-Cbs ) that contains hematite, ruby, sapphire and ruby behavior was confirmed for corundum Mesozoic: first... Cenozoic ( 65 Ma to the geology and corundum ore application of gem corundum in petrology this. Corundum belt ( KK ), Wanni Complex ( HC ) ruby-bearing were... Gems to the Proterozoic Eon low-silica mafic, originally igneous rocks peretti A., Hahn (. Melt as an abrasive formten in der Erdkruste edle Rubine und Saphire on its geographic origin related the formation karst!

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